"If we knew what it was we were doing, it would not be called research, would it?"
This article stems from research carried out during the update of Roderick Cannon’s A Bibliography of Bagpipe Music  and he sums up the difficulties he had in the following words:
A music book rarely tells much of its own history. Many of the books described hereare undated; most have little if any prefatory text and some are anonymous. Worse still, some of them actually give wrong information, dates and other matter having simply been copied without change from some earlier edition of the same book.
For dates we have then to rely on many pieces of evidence – publishers’ names and addresses as compared with those in street directories, trade directories and the like (even telephone directories in some cases); price lists and publishers’ catalogues; dates of events commemorated in tune titles; owners’ signatures and library accession dates; names and Army ranks of composers, and so on – details scarcely significant in themselves, but, together, often enough to fix a date within a year or two.
Curiously enough it is sometimes easier to date an old book than a more recent one, and of all sources of information I have to say that in general the publishers themselves are the least reliable. More than once I have enquired of a publisher only to be told that he simply cannot remember when a particular work was first put on sale. 
PATERSON’S PUBLICATION LTD is one publishing company Cannon would have had in mind when he wrote those comments for prior to 1937 they rarely dated their books or indicated the edition number.
Unless stated otherwise the information in this article has been gleaned from various Post Office directories available online. Currently Scottish directories up to 1911-12 are available online  as are some English directories up to c1920 but they are not as complete. 
One important aspect of interpreting the directories is to understand how and when they were published. From the 18th century a number of publishers produced directories and they usually appeared in late May or early June of any year. Some specify the information intended for inclusion had to be with the publishers at least two months before the intended publication date.
Therefore, if any change is included for the first time in any specific year, that change could have occurred as early as April the preceding year, and as late as April in the year of publication. There were a number of firms who published directories and in some towns and cities more than one directory is available.
Businesses had a choice and some listed in all directories and others did not. The researcher has the added task of locating all directories to ensure they have the complete picture.
In this article, any reference to a bagpipe music book followed by a number, i.e. Logan’s Tutor (No 332), refers to the number used in Cannon’s Bibliography.
Allan Cameron of Auckland, New Zealand, for his proof reading and advice; Terry Carroll of Papakura, New Zealand, for his assistance in deciphering the historical legal documents referred to in this article; Elizabeth Hore, archivist at the National Archives, London, and the writer’s sister, for searching the 1920s and 1930s Post Office directories, the Rate Books and documents in the National Archives, and Barnaby Brown from Scotland and J David Hester PhD from USA for publishing many items on the website bibliography.altpibroch.com.
The firm had its origins in Edinburgh where they were first listed in 1819-20 as PATERSON, MORTIMER & COMPANY, Musical Instrument Makers, 51 North Bridge Street. The principals of the company were not named and cannot be identified in earlier editions of the directory but in 1823-24 George Mortimer, Musical Instrument Maker of 370 Castle Hill is linked to the company as is Robert Paterson of 1 Bellevue Crescent the following year.
In the 1841 census Robert is aged 40 making him only 17 or 18 when he became a partner in the business and this may sound a little surprising. However, in an obituary for Robert’s son, R Roy Paterson in 1903, it is revealed that George Mortimer was Robert’s uncle  and this probably explains how a youngster in his late teens could enter the business world in such a high position.
In late 1826 George Mortimer left PATERSON, MORTIMER & COMPANY and entered a new partnership MORTIMER, ANDERSON & CO, Pianoforte Makers and Musicsellers at 43 Hanover Street. 
Robert Paterson continued in his business and formed a new partnership with P W Roy forming PATERSON, ROY & CO, 27 George Street where they remained for over 100 years, albeit with changes to the company name. Roy, whose home address is given as 1 Henderson’s Row, had been trading by himself for some years prior to this amalgamation. Robert Paterson moved his home address to 12 Fettes Row the following year.
It is not known when PATERSON, ROY & CO first became publishers but in c1835 they did produce some sheet music. In March 2012 a book called Local Melodies of Scotland and other Songs accompanied by the Piano Forte (dated c1835) was advertised for sale  and was a compilation of a number of songs published by various firms including PATERSON, ROY & CO. The writer has three similar volumes from the late 18th and early 19th century and it was not unusual for sheet music to be bound into handsome volumes.
In the 1841 census Robert Paterson is a music seller, 27 George Street, Edinburgh, aged 40, with three children under 12, two daughters and Robert R Paterson, aged 10, who is undoubtedly Robert Roy Paterson who later became a partner in the firm. In 1844-45 John Paterson Jnr joined the firm but it is not known if he was related to Robert Paterson. At the same time they published Vocal Melodies of Scotland by Findlay Dun and John Thomson but this was not the first edition; this book was reprinted on a number of occasions and the writer has an undated edition published by PATERSON & SONS some time after 1874 and before 1892.
In 1850 PATERSON, ROY & CO published Lays of Strathearn by Baroness Nairne, then later Joseph Lowe’s collection of Strathspeys and Reels and the Skye Collection of Strathspeys and Reels by Dr K N MacDonald.  A Scottish composer who was famous in the late Victorian and Edwardian eras, Hamish McCunn, also had his early tunes published by PATERSON, SONS & CO. 
In early 1850 P W Roy retired  but the firm’s name did not change until around December of that year when newspaper advertisements started to appear with the new name PATERSON, SONS & CO; at the same time John Paterson Jnr became a partner.
Four years later in 1854-55 Robert Paterson is no longer listed as part of PATERSON, SONS & CO, but instead seems to have set up in business by himself at Seacliff Villa, Trinity in Edinburgh. John Paterson Jnr left Edinburgh in 1857-58 to open a branch in Glasgow and Robert Paterson returned to the Edinburgh business briefly but died 24 October 1859. John Walker Paterson, Robert Roy Paterson, and William Murray became the sole partners. 
In the NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF SCOTLAND  are ‘Papers relating to various house leases as taken on by Robert Roy Paterson, musicseller, Edinburgh in South Blacket Place, Newington and Russell Place, Trinity (26 items) 1862-1866’; the Reference Number is GD314/477.
The significance of these has not been established, as they have yet to be perused. Called R Roy Paterson in the directories he and his wife Euphemia had eight children, seven daughters and a son Robert Edouard Stirling Paterson (known as Stirling) born about 1873.
In 1874-75 PATERSON, SONS & CO became ‘Musicsellers to the Queen’, a fact proudly proclaimed in books published prior to Queen Victoria’s death in 1901. In c1892 they employed Ernest Donajowski, 24 Castle Street/Berners Street,  as their London agent and the New York branch of Boosey & Co became the distributor in North America. 
Stirling Paterson became a partner in 1897-98 and the Edinburgh newspapers from that time show he performed at many functions as a cellist. At some time David and Daniel Wylie of the Perth branch became partners but in 1901 Daniel retired.  Robert Roy Paterson died in December 1903 aged 73  and a few days later a picture of him appeared in the local newspaper. 
Prior to 28 May 1910, Stirling Paterson, Alexander Murray, John Murray, and William Murray were partners in the Glasgow, Paisley, Greenock, Oban, Ayr, Dumfries, Kilmarnock and Stranraer branches as well as J Muir Wood & Co in Glasgow. John and William Murray retired from the partnership and John Murray took over the ownership of the Greenock, Oban, Ayr, Dumfries, Kilmarnock and Stranraer branches. Stirling Paterson, Alexander Murray and Charles Frederick Hope Robson owned the Glasgow and Paisley branches. 
There was some confusion surrounding the name of the company – sometimes they were called PATERSON & SONS and other times PATERSON, SONS & CO. In 1918 the two names were standardised to PATERSON, SONS & CO LTD  and at the same time the ownership of the branches was explained. Edinburgh, Perth, Arbroath and Aberdeen were owned by Robert Edouard Stirling Paterson and Charles Frederick Hope Robson, whilst the Glasgow, Paisley, Greenock and Oban branches were owned by Robert Edouard Stirling Paterson, Alexander Murray, and Charles Frederick Hope Robson. The Paterson family were still involved with the company over 100 years after its founding and Stirling remained a partner with the Edinburgh branch least as late as 1929. 
R Roy Paterson
In 1925 a major restructuring of the company occurred when a new publishing branch, PATERSON PUBLICATIONS LTD, was created. The detail of this changeover can be seen in the section LONDON BRANCH AND PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD.
The Edinburgh branch continued to be listed in the telephone directory as PATERSON, SONS & CO LTD, 27 George Street, phone CAL 7391 until 1957. The 1958 phone book is not available but in 1959 there is a firm PATERSON, SONS & CO LTD, radio and TV sellers, 33 Leith Street, phone WAV 3115.
The first listing of the Glasgow office was in 1857-58 at 152 Buchanan Street, where they were called PATERSON & SONS, and then the following year PATERSON, SONS & CO. John Paterson Jnr had been a partner at the Edinburgh branch and had moved to Glasgow to run that office. In 1890-91 the listing showed the firm had branches in Perth, Dundee, Ayr, Dumfries and Paisley. The firm was listed in the telephone directory as PATERSON, SONS & CO LTD, piano dealers, 152 Buchanan Street, Phone CEN 8033 until 1970. Shortly before they closed down their telephone number had changed to 041 221 8033.
Very little is known about the Aberdeen branch but in the Post Office directory of 1925  PATERSON, SONS and J MARR WOOD LTD were listed at 183 Union Street, phone 496, and the piano factory at Union Wynd. They were Pianoforte Sellers to HM the King, musicsellers and gramophone dealers.
William Murray of 1 Cassilis Street, Ayr is listed in the 1867-68 Ayr Post Office Directory  as ‘of PATERSON, SONS & CO’. No address for the business is given but in 1880-81 it is at 36 Newmarket Street and Murray lived at 1 Barnes Park, Ayr. An advertisement in 1870-71 shows PATERSON, SONS & CO were at 36 Newmarket Street, Ayr, 152 Buchannan (sic) Street, Glasgow, 27 George, Street, Edinburgh, 17 Princes Street, Perth. Another advertisement in the Kilmarnock Directory of 1872 states Murray was a partner in PATERSON, SONS & CO. In 1890-91 PATERSON, SONS & CO were at 34 Newmarket Street, Ayr and were still there in 1911-12. John Murray, 3 Barns Park, Ayr was the manager in 1911-12.
The Perth office was not listed in 1862-63 and the next directory available is that of 1865 where PATERSON, SONS & CO are at 17 Princes Street. By 1878 they are at 17 and 21 Princes Street; in 1880 14, 17 and 21 Princes Street; 1885 10 Princess Street; 1889-90 at 8-14 Princes Street; 1899-1900 8-16 Princes Street and 1907-08 26 George Street; the manager was John Wyllie of 42 George Street. In the 1880 directory Wyllie is no longer listed but David Wyllie of 2 Blackfriars Street and Daniel Wyllie of 22 Athole Street are ‘of PATERSON, SONS & CO ’. David dropped out of the directories in the mid 1880s whilst Daniel carried on until the 1900s and then John Wylie took over. Leslie’s Directory  1919-20 has PATERSON SONS & CO at 26-33 George Street and John Wylie is in charge. There is some confusion over the spelling of the name ‘Wyllie’ and ‘Wylie’ in the directories and ‘Wylie’ is more likely to be a typographical error. In the 1923-24 directory  P MacKenzie Johnstone is the manager; in 1925-26 PATERSON, SONS & CO had moved to 8 St John’s Place and in 1927-28 they had moved to 38 S Methven Street with Robert Thomson as the manager. Two years later in 1929-30 they had expanded to 38-40 S Methven Street.
The Dundee branch was not listed in the 1880-81 Directory but in 1884-85 they are at 130 Nethergate Street. In 1891-92 they moved to 36-40 Reform Street and were still there in 1911.
There is only one Directory available for Dumfries and that is 1911-12. PATERSON, SONS & CO were at 20 English Street and they also had offices in Ayr, Kilmarnock, Stranraer and Lockerbie.
The Paisley office opened in 1888 with J Roy Fraser as manager. They were in the Terrace Buildings, 109 High Street and were still there in 1911. J Roy Fraser, who was also a music teacher and organist at the Middle Parish Church, left the firm 1895-6 for J MUIR WOOD & CO and the new manager was R Leslie Smith. In 1899-1900 Smith left and W J Fraser took over as manager and was still in that position in 1911. The directory also lists four piano tuners working for PATERSON, SONS & CO. The telephone directories list PATERSON, SONS & CO LTD until 1972; their phone number was PAI 2956 and later changed to 041 889 2956.
The first mention of PATERSON, SONS & CO in Greenock was in the 1900-01 directory and they were at 23 West Blackall Street. They were still there in 1911-12.
LONDON BRANCH AND PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD
Throughout the 19th century and the first two decades of the 20th century PATERSON, SONS & CO was very much a Scottish firm with the head office in Edinburgh. Music publishing was a large part of their business and the Edinburgh and/or Glasgow branches were listed in imprints of their publications. Sometimes Edinburgh was listed first in the imprints and occasionally that honour befell Glasgow. There are also some publications with just one of these two offices listed.
The early years of the London operation was not a branch but instead from at least 1892 dealt through an agent, Ernest Donajowski, 24 Castle Street.   Although listed in directories for another 20 years he did not remain as their agent, for in 1909 PATERSON, SONS & CO published a sheet music collection called Humorous Scottish Songs Book that had the address 72 Wells Street, London; Donajowski was in 26 Castle Street at this time. This is the first known use of 72 Wells Street and the telephone book shows REID BROS Ltd, music publishers, were there from 1907 until 1918 when they moved into 26 Castle Street East.
Another music publishing firm, WELLS CASTLE & CO, took over the 72 Wells Street address and in late 1920 changed their name to EVANS & CO (WELLS/CASTLE) LTD. They remained there until October 1926 when they disappeared from the telephone book. It is possible that PATERSON, SONS & CO used Ernest Donajowski, REID BROS LTD, WELLS CASTLE & CO and EVANS & CO (WELLS/CASTLE) LTD as their London agents.
In 1923 J Michael Diack (1869 – 1947) became ‘…a director of the Glasgow music publishing house of Pattersons’ (sic)  and he compiled many books and sheet music during his time with the company. One of the earliest bagpipe music books published by PATERSON, SONS & CO, Pipe Major William Ross’s Collection of Highland Bagpipe Music (No 348), appeared in the same year. 
The only address in the imprint was 152 Buchanan Street, Glasgow and the lack of any London address suggests they were not using an agent at that time.
LOGAN & J MARR WOOD LTD from Inverness started off as a pianoforte manufacturing firm in the 1840s and later became music publishers. From the 1880s they published bagpipe music and this continued until 1923 when they closed down. Soon after, PATERSON, SONS & CO and ROBERT G LAWRIE, published some reprints of their books and maybe both firms were in competition to take over the publishing rights. However, the decision was made in 1925 when a new company, PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD, 49 West George Street, Glasgow, was formed; the purpose of this new company was to ‘…acquire that part of the undertaking of Paterson, Sons & Co (Ltd), which relates to music, literary and general publications’. 
The formation of this new company was probably the catalyst for them acquiring the publishing rights to all Logan’s books as from that point all known reprints were by PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD. There are no known publications with the address 49 West George Street, Glasgow and PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD never appeared in the Glasgow phonebook.
In 1925 PATERSON, SONS & CO included 95 Wimpole Street in their imprints and two publishing firms occupied that address in that year – the ANGLO-FRENCH MUSIC COMPANY and OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. The ANGLO-FRENCH MUSIC COMPANY set up in 1916 at 31 York Place, Baker Street, London, and in 19 January 1921 moved to 109 Baker Street; then in 12 April 1922 moved to 95 Wimpole Street.
In 1925 they went through bankruptcy and on 4 May all the directors resigned to be replaced by Humphrey Sumner Milford, Herbert James Foss and William Du Bois Cannon. 
These three men were part of OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS and had been striving to set up a music publishing branch in London but realised they needed to take over an existing company; to this end they ‘…acquired the ANGLO-FRENCH MUSIC CO LTD, together with most of its staff and its premises in Wimpole Street.’ 
The first known bagpipe music book published by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS was the Tutor for the Northumberland Half-Long Bagpipe by William A Cocks (No 205) in 1925.
The New York branch of OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS opened in September 1896 at 91 and 93 Fifth Avenue. 
An advertisement in 1910 showed they had moved to 35 West 32nd Street, New York,  where they remained until the branch underwent severe financial difficulties and moved to smaller premises at 114 Fifth Avenue, New York in September 1927. 
PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD published Wee Willie Winkie and other Scots Nursery Songs by J Michael Diack in 1927 and this included the 95 Wimpole Street and 35 West 32nd Street addresses.
In 1928 PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD published books with OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 114 Fifth Ave, New York, CHARLES BEGG & CO LTD, Manners Street, Wellington and ANGLO-CANADIAN MUSIC CO, 144 Victoria Street, Toronto in the imprints. Also in 1928 Carl Fischer Inc, 62 Cooper Square appeared in some imprints and from that date OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS was no longer used.
Charles Begg was a piano and musicseller in Aberdeen, Scotland, in the 1850s  before migrating to New Zealand where he established a large firm with many branches throughout the country.
The writer purchased his first practice chanter and Logan’s Tutor from the Oamaru branch in June 1963.
In 1928 PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD set up office at 36 Wigmore Street, London and ceased using agents in that city. The London telephone directory was issued in March and September each year and the first time PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD appeared was September 1929. Initially their address was 36 Wigmore Street but around 1937 it became 36-40 Wigmore Street.
There are some publications by PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD from 1925 that have the Glasgow and/or Edinburgh addresses in the imprints, as well as 95 Wimpole Street, London.
In one undated piece of sheet music, From the Hebrides by Marjory Kennedy-Fraser, the imprint reads:
Paterson’s Publications, Ltd.
152 Buchanan St., Glasgow, London:
95 Wimpole St., W.1.
35 West 32nd Street, New York.
The hand-written line through 95 Wimpole Street is as it appears in the imprint and directly below it is a rubber stamp with:
Wigmore Hall Studios,
36 Wigmore Street.
Inside the front cover is a statement ‘…printed in Scotland by PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD, 152 Buchanan Street…’. The preparation and printing of this sheet music probably occurred shortly before PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD moved into 36 Wigmore Street and the imprint amendment became the most expedient method of informing the public of the changes.
It also shows that at the same time PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD were no longer using the London office of OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. The New York branch of OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS moved out of 35 West 32nd Street in September 1927 and although used briefly in some imprints, was replaced by Carl Fischer Inc, 62 Cooper Square, at some time in 1928.
For a number of years after 1925 the Glasgow and Edinburgh offices of PATERSON, SONS & CO were preparing and editing publications but the final process was done under the PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD banner. PATERSON, SONS & CO continued trading under that name in Glasgow and Edinburgh for a number of decades but the office addresses disappeared from the imprints in about 1934 and 1943 respectively.
For many years no Australian agent appeared in the imprints, but in 1939 this changed with the publication of the sheet music Rustic Rhapsody on Sussex Carol – For the Pianoforte by Kenneth Eade. It included JOHN F DEAN & CO, Danks Building, 324 Pitt Street, Sydney, Australia; two years later their address changed to 310 George Street, Sydney. In 1943 the ANGLO-CANADIAN MUSIC CO fell on hard times  and their name was removed from the imprints. The following year BOOSEY & HAWKES (CANADA) LTD, 10 Shuter Street, Toronto appeared and in 1949 or 1950 they moved to 309 Victoria Street, Toronto.
Logan’s Tutor went through various reprints and from 1937 nearly all of them were dated revealling a reasonably accurate chronology of the different offices and addresses used. In 1955 all overseas offices were removed from the imprints.
In April 1984 PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD went through financial difficulties  and was taken over by CHESTER MUSIC LIMITED and NOVELLO & COMPANY LIMITED, 14-15, Berners Street, London.  At the same time they moved out of 36-40 Wigmore Street into 10-12 Baches Street, London.  A number of bagpipe music books are still being published with PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD on the imprint.
EARLY BAGPIPE MUSIC PUBLICATIONS
PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD acquired the publishing rights from LOGAN & CO’s in 1925 and quickly commenced reprinting all their books. However, it was not the first time they had done this. Logan’s Collection Book 4, was published by PATERSON, SONS & CO and has 72 Wells Street in the imprint (see Fig 1 below).
In theory it could have been published any time between 1907 (the year after the 1st edition was published) and 1925 (the year when the name changed to PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD), but is far more likely to have been published after 1916.
Logan’s Tutor and Collection were 1/- each in 1899/1901 and the price gradually increased to 2/- each in 1916/17 where it stayed until about 1941; the Book 4 by PATERSON, SONS & CO cost 2/-.
Additionally, there were some books in Logan’s Collection published by LOGAN & J MARR WOOD LTD (i.e. between 1916 and 1923) but not Book 4. This suggests that PATERSON, SONS & CO assisted when the merger to form LOGAN & J MARR WOOD LTD was happening and therefore 1916 could have been the date of publication. It is also feasible the book could have been published in 1923/24 when LOGAN & J MARR WOOD LTD ceased trading.
There were a number of occasions when another firms, R G LAWRIE, PETER HENDERSON and W & M MACLEOD published editions of Logan’s Collection. LOGAN & CO (and LOGAN & J MARR WOOD LTD) went through difficult times on three occasions (c1903-05, 1916-17 and c1923) and it has been argued elsewhere  that on these occasions other firms published some urgently required reprints.
The following tables provide images of many imprints used by PATERSON, SONS & CO and PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD and attempts to place them in chronological order.
This imprint is from an edition of Logan’s Collection (No 327) Book 4 and is the earliest known bagpipe music book published by PATERSON, SONS & CO.
It is also possible this book was published after LOGAN & J MARR WOOD LTD closed down in1923 and before PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD was formed in mid 1925.
The name change to PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD occurred in June 1925.
In June 1925 PATERSON, SONS & CO changed name to PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD.
The Wimpole Street address was still being used in 1927.
In 1928 PATERSON’S PUBLICATIONS LTD started trading at 36 Wigmore Street, London.
Nigel Malcolm-Smith, Archivist, Royal Scottish Pipers Society provides the following comments:
Rev 00 (27 November 2014). This is the initial edition. As fresh information comes to light the edition number will change and a brief description of those changes will be added.
© Geoff Hore 2014
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